Pediatric urology is a surgical subspecialty of medicine that deals with genitourinary system diseases in children. Pediatric urologists treat both boys and girls from birth to early adult years.
Pediatric Urology is a surgical specialty that focuses on children’s genitourinary system issues.
The Kidneys, Ureters (tubes that run between the kidney and the bladder), Bladder, Urethra (pee tube), as well as genitalia in boys and females, make up the genitourinary system.
Bedwetting is a common problem among children. It is considered normal till the age of five years and does not need inspection or treatment. One in every six children under the age of five may pee on the bed. Bedwetting is a problem that can persist in families. In almost all circumstances, it determines whether or not treatment is required.
To explain bedwetting, a few theories have been offered. A postponement of the usual improvement of evening bladder control is likely to help in most circumstances. Bedwetting can also be the result of other underlying disorders.
Urine and stool are used to clean away waste from the body. Urine is produced in the kidneys and then transported to the bladder via the ureters, which are long, thin tubes. It is stored in the bladder until it is released through the urethra, the bladder’s outflow. During discharge, the outlet control muscle should relax completely as the bladder contracts to release pee. In the faeces, solid waste and unabsorbed nourishment are excreted.
The guts and bladder of newborn children empty reflexively. When the bladder or bowel is full, it automatically empties. By the age of three, a child has gained control of his or her bladder and digestive system. The bladder of a youngster fills and empties four to six times per day. Defecations are usually one or two times a day.
Urine control is usually achieved by the age of three, with evening control occurring later. Some children will continue to bed-wet for a few more years, but by the age of seven, the majority will be dry.
The foreskin is a delicate skin covering that covers the tip of the penis. The inward foreskin joins the penile shaft just past the glans, with a little band (the frenulum) on the underside nearing the entry of the urinary portion (urethral meatus). Its capability and general development must be understood to ensure proper consideration.
In a diapered infant, the foreskin protects the glans and urethral meatus from urine contact, preventing irritation. The foreskin continues to protect the sensitive glans in older boys and adults. The foreskin may also have specific capabilities related to sensitivity and invulnerability.
The internal foreskin is usually intertwined with the glans during delivery. This prevents the glans from being pulled back or retracted. Urine should not be affected in any way. The inward foreskin will gradually detach from the glans as your child grows, allowing dynamic withdrawal. The foreskin should never be pulled back too far.
A condition known as an undescended testicle affects roughly 4% of newborn boys. The testicles, which deliver male hormones and sperm, begin to develop in the mid-region, beside the kidneys. They typically slide through the crotch into the scrotal sac during development before conception.
In a few boys, the plunge of one or both testicles is insufficient, and the testicle falls to the ground somewhere during its descent from the mid-region to the scrotum. Physical examinations are frequently used to detect this not long after conception.
In children with urinary infections, vesicoureteric reflux is a common concern. In the few who consent to treatment, surgical adjustments are available.
Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is a disorder in which urine can flow back from the bladder to the kidneys, which is usually detected during a urinary tract infection (UTI) test in children.
Urine from the kidneys drains into the bladder through tubes called ureters, where it is stored until it is time to void through the urethra (“urine entry”). One-way “fold valves” at the junction of the ureters and the bladder usually prohibit urine from flowing backward around the kidneys.
VUR is not caused by disease, and VUR does not induce urine contamination.
When these valves don’t close properly, urine can flow backward from the bladder to the ureter and kidney, causing vesicoureteric reflux. From the moment of conception, one or both kidneys may be included. VUR alone, in most cases, will not produce any symptoms or cause any harm. However, if a child develops a bladder infection, the contaminated urine might flow back to the kidney(s) and cause kidney contamination. This can make the child unwell with fever and chills, as well as cause permanent kidney scarring. Urine illness does not always lead to VUR, and VUR does not always lead to urinary contamination.
The types of treatments a Pediatric Urologists provides are as follows: –
- Evaluation and management of voiding disorders, vesicoureteral reflux, and urinary tract infections that require surgery.
- Surgical reconstruction of the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, and bladder) including genital abnormalities, hypospadias, and disorders of sex development.
- Surgery for groin conditions in childhood and adolescence (undescended testes, hydrocele/hernia, varicocele).
- Evaluation and surgical management of kidney stone disease.
- Surgical management of tumors and malignancies of the kidney, bladder, and testis.
- Evaluation and management of urological tract problems identified before birth.
- Evaluation and management of urinary tract problems associated with neurological conditions such as spina bifida.